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Improving Water Supply and Sanitation Services for the Urban Poor in India

RESOURCES

Give the Poor a Voice

Baindur, Vinay. September 5, 2005. ‘For the People, by
Diktat.’  India Together op-ed.
http://www.indiatogether.org/
2005/sep/gov-nurm.htm
d’Cruz, Celine, and David Satterthwaite. 2006. The Role
of Urban Grassroots Organizations and their National
Federations in Reducing Poverty and Achieving the
Millennium Development Goals. Global Urban Development,
Vol. 2, Issue 1.
Water and Sanitation Program. January 2007. Slum
Sanitation Program in Mumbai: Stakeholder Participation
Paves Way for Sustainability. Case Study.

Take Vested Interests into Account

Brocklehurst, Clarissa, Shagun Malhotra, and Alain Morel.
June 2005. Rogues No More? Water Kiosk Operators
Achieve Credibility in Kibera. Water and Sanitation Program
Field Note.
www.wsp.org
Kariuki, R. Mukami, and Jordan Schwartz. October 2005.
Small-Scale Private Service Providers of Water Supply and
Electricity: A Review of Incidence, Structure, Pricing, and
Operating Characteristics. World Bank Policy Research
Working Paper 3727. Available online at
http://econ.worldbank.org
Triche, Thelma, Sixto Requeno, and R. Mukami Kariuki.
December 2006. Engaging Local Private Operators in Water
Supply and Sanitation Services: Initial Lessons from Emerging
Experience in Cambodia, Colombia, Paraguay, the Philippines,
and Uganda. Water Supply and Sanitation Working Note 12,
World Bank, p. 16.
Valfrey-Visser, Bruno, David Schaub-Jones, Bernard
Collignon, and Emmanuel Chaponni?re. November 2006.
Access through Innovation: Expanding Water Service Delivery
through Independent Network Providers—Considerations for
Practitioners and Policymakers. Building Partnerships for
Development.
www.bpdws.org
Wampler, Brian. October 2000. A Guide to Participatory
Budgeting.
http://www.internationalbudget.org/resources/
library/GPB.pdf
Water and Sanitation Program, and Ministry of Housing
(Peru). June 2007. Evaluation of Small-Scale Providers of
Water Supply and Sanitation Services in Peru. WSP and
Ministerio de Vivienda, Construcci?n y Saneamiento, Lima.
World Bank. November 2006. Identifying Appropriate Policy
and Regulatory Frameworks for SPSPs in the Water Sector:
The Role of SPSP Associations? Synthesis Report.
Water and Energy Department.

Water and Sanitation Program. February 2006. Connecting
the Slums: A Utility’s Pro-Poor Approach in Bangalore.
Field Note.
Water and Sanitation Program. January 2007. Bangalore
Water Service Delivery: Indigenous Model Shows the Way.
Case Study.

Strengthen Capacity, Autonomy, and

Accountability of Service Providers and
Provide Incentives to Serve Poor Users
ADB (Asian Development Bank). 2004. The Role of Small-
Scale Private Water Providers in Serving the Urban Poor,
Case Study No. 11 in Bringing Water to the Poor, Selected
ADB Case Studies.
Barnes, Nancy, and Abdelkarim Asa’d. 2003. A Challenging
Experience in Organization Development: A Guidebook. This
report is based on the experience of the Jerusalem Water
Undertaking. For more information, see
www.jwu.orgor
www.gtz.de
Brocklehurst, Clarissa, and Jan G. Janssens. January 2004.
Innovative Contracts, Sound Relationships: Urban Water
Sector Reform in Senegal. Water Supply and Sanitation
Sector Board Discussion Paper No. 1. World Bank.
Brocklehurst, Clarissa, C.B. Evans, and R. Mukami Kariuki.
2003. New Designs for Water and Sanitation Transactions:
Making Private Sector Participation Work for the Poor. Water
and Sanitation Program and PPIAF.
Connors, Genevieve. 2007. Watering the Slums: How a Utility
and its Street-Level Bureaucrats Connected the Poor in
Bangalore. Ph.D. Dissertation. Massachusetts Institute
of Technology.
Ehrhardt, David, Eric Groom, Jonathan Halpern, and Seini
O’Connor. 2007. Economic Regulation of Urban Water and
Sanitation Services: Some Practical Lessons. World Bank.
(Discusses the basic principles and the design of regulation
to fit the local context; a short practitioners’ note is also
being prepared.)
Mugisha, Silver. April 2006. Performance Assessment and
Monitoring of Water Infrastructure: An Empirical Case Study
of Benchmarking in Uganda.
Pilgrim, Nick, Bob Roche, John Kalbermatten, Cathy Revels,
and R. Mukami Kariuki. 2007. Town Water Supply and
Sanitation Initiative: Principles of Town Water Supply and
Sanitation (Vol. I), and Guidance Manual and Training Modules
(Vol. II). World Bank–Bank of Netherlands Water Partnership.
Public Affairs Foundation. n.d. Citizen Report Cards: A
Resource Kit. Bengaluru.

Overcome Physical and Technical Barriers

ADB (Asian Development Bank). 2004. Water for Slums:
Private Sector Participation in Manila. Case No. 11 in Bringing
Water to the Poor: Selected ADB Case Studies. (Flexible
technical standards allowed the installation of connections to
plastic pipes above ground.)
Centre for Science and Environment. 2000. A Water
Harvesting Manual for Urban Areas: Case Studies from
Delhi. New Delhi.
Centre for Science and Environment. 2007. A Wastewater
Recycling Manual for Urban Areas with Case Studies.
New Delhi.
Dickson, Eric. November 2006. Management Models of
Water and Sanitation: Approaches to Decentralization in
Honduras. International Development Research Center
(Canada), Urban Poverty and Environment Program.
(Describes the rainwater collection systems in Laguna del
Pedregal, among other innovations.)
Foster, Vivien. n.d. Condominial Water and Sewerage
Systems: Costs of Implementation of the Model, El Alto—
Bolivia/Pilot Project. Economic and Financial Evaluation,
Water and Sanitation Program.
Godfrey, Amaka, ed. 2005. Low-Cost Toilet Options: A
Catalogue. WEDC.
Melo, Jose Carlos. August 2005. The Experience of
Condominial Sewerage Systems in Brazil: Case Studies from
Brasilia, Salvador, and Parauapebas. World Bank.
National Institute of Urban Affairs. June 2005. Status of Water
Supply, Sanitation, and Solid Waste Management in Urban
Areas. Sponsored by Central Public Health and Environmental
Engineering Organization (CPHEEO), Ministry of Urban
Development, Government of India.
Pickford, John. 1995. Low-Cost Sanitation: A Survey of
Practical Experience. WEDC.
World Bank. January 2006. India Water Supply and
Sanitation: Bridging the Gap between Infrastructure and
Service. Background Paper, Urban Water Supply and
Sanitation, pp. 18-19.

Eliminate Administrative and Legal Barriers

Alfaro, Raquel. November 1997. Linkages between
Municipalities and Utilities: An Experience in Overcoming
Urban Poverty. Working Paper. Water and
Sanitation Program.
Brocklehurst, Clarissa, Shagun Malhotra, and Alain Morel.
June 2005. Rogues No More? Water Kiosk Operators
Achieve Credibility in Kibera. Water and Sanitation Program
Field Note.
www.wsp.org
Caseley, Jonathan. December 2003. Blocked Drains and
Open Minds: Multiple Accountability Relationships and
Improved Service Delivery Performance in an Indian City.
IDS Working Paper 211.
CEPT (Center for Environmental Planning and Technology).
n.d. Wealth Creation and Well Being: Impact of Slum
Upgradation and Improved Service Delivery to the Poor—A
Case Study of Slum Networking Project, Ahmedabad. School
of Planning, CEPT. Ahmedabad. n.d.
Connors, Genevieve. 2007. Watering the Slums: How a Utility
and its Street-Level Bureaucrats Connected the Poor in
Bangalore. Ph.D. Dissertation. Massachusetts Institute
of Technology.
Davis, Jennifer, and Sunil Tanka. The Hyderabad Metropolitan
Water Supply and Sewerage Board. Massachusetts Institute
of Technology. Paper written for Henry Lee, Lecturer in Public
Policy at the Kennedy School of Government. Available online
at
http://ocw.mit.edu/NR/rdonlyres/Urban-Studies-and-
Planning/11-479Spring-2005/3AFFDD6C-7096-4CC8-85ED-
89839F8BAC15/0/pm2background.pdf
Dickson, Eric. November 2006. Management Models of
Water and Sanitation: Approaches to Decentralization in
Honduras. International Development Research Center
(Canada), Urban Poverty and Environment Program.
Gramalaya and WaterAid India. February 2007. Tiruchirapalli
Shows the Way: Community-Municipality-NGO Partnership
for Citywide Pro-Poor Slums Infrastructure Improvement.
Policy paper.
Shukla, Shikha. 2005. Ensuring Access of Urban Poor
Communities to Basic Services. Water and Sanitation
Program–South Asia. New Delhi.
Shukla, Shikha. October 2006. Draft Case Note on
HMWSSB’s Metro Customer Care. Prepared for Guidance
Notes on Grievance Redressal Mechanisms, for WSP–SA
(Performance Improvement Program).
WAC (Water for Asian Cities). Best Practices—Orangi Pilot
Project. WAC Program.

Tremolet, Sophie. May 2006. Adapting Regulation to the
Needs of the Poor: Experience in Four East African
Countries. Building Partnerships for Development
Research Series.
Tremolet, Sophie, and Jonathan Halpern. June 2006.
Regulation of Water and Sanitation Services: Getting Better
Services to Poor People. OBA Working Paper Series, No. 8,
Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid.
Tremolet, Sophie, and Catherine Hune. August 2006. Taking
Account of the Poor in Water Sector Regulation. Water and
Sanitation Working Paper Series No. 11, World Bank.
Wagle, Swarnim, Janmejay Singh, and Parmesh Shah.
February 2004. Citizen Report Card Surveys—A Note on the
Concept and Methodology. Social Development Notes,
Participation and Civic Engagement, Note No. 91.
World Bank.
World Bank. January 2006. India Water Supply and
Sanitation: Bridging the Gap between Infrastructure and
Service. Background Paper, Urban Water Supply
and Sanitation.

Adopt Appropriate Investment Finance,
Cost Recovery, and Subsidy Policies

Brocklehurst, Clarissa, and Jan G. Janssens. January 2004.
Innovative Contracts, Sound Relationships: Urban Water
Sector Reform in Senegal. Water Supply and Sanitation
Sector Board Discussion Paper No. 1. World Bank.
(Tariffs were increased gradually over several years while
subsidies were gradually decreased until full cost recovery
was attained.)
Ehrhardt, David, Eric Groom, Jonathan Halpern, and Seini
O’Connor. 2007. Economic Regulation of Urban Water and
Sanitation Services: Some Practical Lessons. World Bank,
forthcoming. (Discusses the basic principles and the design
of regulation to fit the local context; a practitioners’ note is
also being prepared.)
Kingdom, Bill, Roland Liemberger, and Philippe Marin.
December 2006. The Challenge of Reducing Nonrevenue
Water in Developing Countries: How the Private Sector can
Help: A Look at Performance-Based Service Contracting.
Water Supply and Sanitation Board Discussion Paper
Series, Paper No. 8. World Bank.
Makino, Midori. 2002–03. Water Tariffs and Subsidies in
South Asia. Papers 1 through 5. Water and Sanitation
Program–South Asia.
World Bank. January 2006. India Water Supply and Sanitation:
Bridging the Gap between Infrastructure and Service.
Background Paper. Urban Water Supply and Sanitation.

Organizations and Institutions

American Water Works Association Research Foundation
(
www.awwarf.org)
Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi
(
www.cseindia.org)
Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid (
www.gpoba.org)
Gramalaya, a nongovernmental organization that promotes
health and hygiene education, promotion of self-help
groups among women, construction of low-cost housing
and toilets; active in the slums of Tiruchirapalli
(
www.gramalaya.org)
National Water and Sewerage Corporation of Uganda
(
www.nwsc.co.ug)
Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA), a nonprofit
organization that advocates for the rights of women working
in the informal sector, conducts research on the
contributions and working conditions of women, and
develops strategies for working with women who work in
the informal sector (
www.sewa.org)
Thai Rating and Information Service (
www.tris.co.th/index.html)
The Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI) has
promoted the creation of professional associations
(
www.asci.org.in)
The Orangi Pilot Project Research and Training Institute
(
www.oppinstitutions.org)
WaterAid, United Kingdom-based nongovernmental
organization that promotes access to safe water, sanitation,
and hygiene education (
www.wateraid.org)
Water, Engineering, and Development Center,
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
(
www.wedc.lboro.ac.uk)

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