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Indonesia National Program for Community Water Supply and Sanitation Services


This report is based on a three-week mission to Indonesia, supplemented by secondary data from previous sector studies and evaluations. While every effort has been made to provide a comprehensive assessment of community-based sanitation and hygiene servi in Indonesia, and to make realistic proposals for sanitation and hygiene improvement under a new national program, time and resource constraints have resulted in some inevitable shortcomings and omissions.
In particular, three areas require more thorough examination during program preparatio
•  Evaluation of CLTS in Indonesia
•  Program implementation in peri-urban areas
•  Institutional arrangements for sanitation and hygiene improvement
8.1 Evaluation of CLTS in Indonesia

The proposed ‘total sanitation program’ accounts for 54% of the estimated total cost of the US$65 million Sanitation and Hygiene Improvement component. Given the significance of this sub-component to the NPCWSSS, and the short time that has elaps since community-led total sanitation (CLTS) was introduced to Indonesia, it is imperat that a rigorous and independent evaluation of the CLTS pilot projects is conducted befo the approach is scaled up into a national program.
The evaluation should interrogate the replicability of the CLTS pilot projects and approaches at scale, and generate reliable data for use in future policy and investment decisions. Some stakeholders have expressed concerns about the impact of the ‘zero hardware subsidy’ policy on the affordability of toilets by the poorest; the safety and sustainability of the very low-cost toilets that the poor tend to construct under CLTS projects; and the limited hygiene promotion built into the CLTS process. In order to respond to these concerns, the evaluation should, at a minimum, collect detailed information on toilet costs, toilet designs, affordability, financing, barriers to adoption, safe excreta disposal, sustainability, hygiene promotion activities, evidence of hygiene behavior change, incidence of diarrheal disease, and so on.
8.2 Program implementation in peri-urban areas

Given the limited time and resources available, the main focus of the research for this report has been on sanitation and hygiene improvement in rural areas. Neither the WSLIC-2 project, which provides much of the evidence and experience presented here, nor any of the other community-based projects that were studied, operate in urban areas.
The one exception is the SANIMAS pilot project, whose approaches to community-based urban sanitation development are now being incorporated into the Indonesian Sanitation Sector Development Project (ISSDP). The following suggestions on program implementation in peri-urban areas derive from the work done in preparing ISSDP, and require more work to integrate them with the other sub-components of the NPCWSSS.
Following the SANIMAS model, peri-urban sub-projects will involve an intensive facilitation process at the community and city level to generate demand for community-based sanitation services and select eligible communities for participation. The process will begin with city level meetings to introduce community-based sanitation, with the participation of eligible communities and other stakeholders (i.e. government officials, NGOs, private sector). Following these meetings, communities interested in participating in the program will submit expressions of interest detailing their needs, willingness to pay, experience with past projects, and other characteristics.
Following selection, participating communities and local government facilitators will take part in a series of capacity building workshops on informed choice of systems and the development of community action plans outlining the institutional, technical and financial aspects of community-based sanitation development. Communities will be expected to contribute with a mixture of in-kind and cash contributions, while local governments will be asked to make contributions that at least match those made by the communities. The arrangements for the development of neighborhood sanitation (including domestic, school and small enterprise sanitation facilities) will be conceptualized in a participatory community action plan. This action plan will serve as a contract to outline community obligations and tasks, on which basis the community will then set up a sanitation committee to collect contributions and organize procurement and construction oversight. This sanitation committee will require training in system operation and maintenance, including cost recovery systems to fund further improvements and non-routine maintenance. 

8.3 Institutional arrangements for sanitation and hygiene improvement Institutional arrangements are critical to the effectiveness and sustainability of large-scale program implementation. Unfortunately, these proposals for the sanitation and hygiene improvement component have been developed in isolation from the rest of the program preparation, which leaves many of the institutional questions unanswered.

The findings in this report make clear that the sanitation and hygiene improvement component needs to be more separate from the water supply development component than in previous projects. It is also apparent that the parallel procurement and management systems established by projects like WSLIC-2 reduce the ownership and accountability of the government bodies responsible for implementation.
The long-term solution will be implementation managed by local government, but the transition from donor-funded project management units to permanent institutions at the province and district level will take time, and require considerable capacity building and institutional reform.
At present, there is little sanitation and hygiene improvement capacity at any level of government. Therefore, it is unrealistic to expect the forthcoming national program to move immediately to decentralized implementation through local sanitation and hygiene units. The proposals in this report include funding for the establishment of provincial sanitation and hygiene units, which will initially be responsible for monitoring and evaluation of program performance and impact, and for providing long-term support to community-based sanitation and hygiene services. But this report has not tackled the more difficult issues of long-term funding for these units, which should be included in local government budgets, or the future role of these units in managing the development and provision of local services.
The following institutional issues require more detailed study and discussion with the Government of Indonesia:
•  Decentralized management of sanitation and hygiene interventions
•  Lines of accountability for sanitation and hygiene investments
•  Recruitment and training of community sanitation and hygiene specialists
•  Long-term role of the community facilitators trained to conduct CLTS activities
•  Identification of suitable institutions to conduct provincial market research studies
•  Modalities of collaboration with private sector contributors to marketing campaigns
•  Specialist support for the implementation of the supply chain and business
development program (e.g. from IDE Vietnam)
•  Involvement of school teachers in district workshops on school hygiene and sanitation
•  Implementation of a multi-stakeholder baseline survey
•  Establishment of provincial sanitation and hygiene units
It is also crucial that all of the relevant government bodies, both line ministries and local governments, buy in to the proposals detailed in this report, and that any concerns or contradictions are discussed and resolved during program preparation. A major part of the program preparation process will be to build stakeholder consensus on how to synchronize the different sectoral inputs at local government level, and how to align these inputs with the government’s national policy for community-based water supply and environmental sanitation. The main objective is to improve sustainable access to water supply and sanitation services, but this objective will only be reached by improving the priority of water supply, sanitation and hygiene in local government budgets, and building local government capacities to facilitate the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene services, thus some of these broader issues need to be tackled at this stage.

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